6 Principles of Survival – Maximize Rescue

Maximize Rescue – Signaling / Navigation

Rescue is the goal of every survival situation. Once you meet your primary needs, focus on rescue.
You’re only a survivor when you have been rescued. This means that you must be able to either get yourself out of the predicament you are in (self-rescue) or be rescued from that situation by others (assisted rescue).

Preparation is key-informing people of your intentions and timeframes will at least have someone wondering why you are not back yet. Be sure to leave an ISOPREP Report behind with someone you trust.  (See Principle #1)

THE BIG ? Do I stay, or do I go? This is a major decision. Do you remain where you are or move to a location that offers a better chance of survival, rescue, or both. In general it is always best to stay where you are. It’s all too easy to make a rash decision and attempt to walk out of a situation only to put yourself in even greater danger.

Signaling While waiting for rescue maximize your odds by signaling. The key to signaling is contrast and movement.
Universal Distress Signal: SOS
Universal Distress Number: 3

Primary Signalling Methods:

  • Sound: Create 3 loud blows with a whistle, or by banging metal objects together.
  • Reflection: Reflect rays of the sun off of a mirror or shiny surface such as foil, a CD, or the bottom of a can to attract attention.
  • Light: Using a flashlight or other light source turn on and off 3 times, and then wait 10-15 seconds to repeat.
  • Fire: Create a large signal fire by adding green vegetation to your fire. For best results, create 3 fire platforms that can be easily and quickly lit.
  • Flagging: Using a t-shirt, bandanna, or other material create a flag to wave at potential rescuers.
  • Ground-to-air: To make ground-to-air marker, use anything that contrasts with the ground. Make sure it is big and visible. Common markers: SOS or HELP  Emergency Ground to Air Code:
      • V: Needs Assistance
      • X: Needs Emergency Assistance
      • ->: Direction of Travel

    Navigation
    With proper planning you should have taken a compass and a map with you on your adventure, and you should have the ability to properly read a map and use a compass. Often time’s people find themselves lost, and unable to determine direction, because they failed to be prepared.

    Determine General Direction (Northern Hemisphere) If you can see the sun, you can use an analog watch as a protractor to determine an approximate direction. Ensure it is set to the correct local time. If you don’t have a watch but time, simply draw a watch.
    Point the hour hand towards the sun, and bisect the angle between the hour hand and 12 o’clock. That is your North South Line.

Dead Reckoning When navigating across land, you’re less likely to get lost if you take direct bearing from one feature to another. This will prevent you from going in circles.
When obstacles are in your way simply box around them, or use your pace beads to pace out around the object.

Using these simple rescue techniques could greatly increase your odds of rescue and survival.  Be sure to watch the corresponding video below for further instructor, and as always be sure to share and subscribe.

6 Principles of Survival – Minimize Dehydration – Water Procurement

There is nothing more refreshing than having a clean glass of drinking water.

“We tend to take water for granted until we don’t have any – at which point it becomes the most important thing in the world.”

 

What is Dehydration? There are several stages of dehydration, but the primary thing you need to understand is that when the body begins to lose water it will begin to function irregularly and in severe cases vital organs begin to shut down.  The effects of water loss could include: thirst, dark colored urine, dry mouth/lips/eyes, dizziness/light-headedness, headache, lethargy, and in severe cases irregular pulse, trouble breathing, unconsciousness, and even death.  Lack of water can prevents the body from being able to regulate your core body temperature, and could result in heat exhaust or heat stroke.

Rationing/Conserving Water and Delaying Dehydration – There is a lot of debate on rationing your water, or conserving it, and I am no expert, but I am convinced your body will utilize the water as needed.  Rationing your water can be beneficial if it gives you a psychological advantage by continually moistening your lips, mouth, and throat.  Just be careful not to be so conservative that you are found dead from dehydration with a canteen of water.

Water Sources – Choosing a choice water source can be difficult, but it is important to find the cleanest, clearest, flowing water you can find.  Water Sources could consist of  springs, streams, rivers, wells, lakes, ponds, seepage, rain cavities, vegetation, vines, and trees.

 

5 Primary Water Hazards

  1. Bacteria/Pathogens: Cholera, Echoli, Salmonella
  2. Protozoa/Amoebas: Crypto, Giardia
  3. Virus: Hepatitis A & E
  4. Parasite: Hook Worms, Tapeworms
  5. Chemicals/Metals/Additives – Fluoride, oils/fuels, phosphate, lead, mercury, arsenic

 

5 Primary Water Treatment Methods

  1. Boil – Over a Fire, Rock Boil
  2. Filter – Commercial Filters, Tripod Filter, Bottle Filter
  3. Chemical – Tablets, Iodine, Bleach, Natural Teas Volatile Oils (Mint)(Pine Needles
  4. Solar/UV – Pasteurization, Transpiration, Solar Still
  5. Distill

Last Resort

If you have absolutely no means of treating or boiling water, you should try to:

  • Find the clearest flowing water and collect it from the surface.
  • Fill canteen with mouth facing away from current.
  • Avoid water sources with animal tracks, scat, or carcass.
  • Filter Debris out with a bandanna, or sock as a last resort.
  • Remember, it’s better to drink foul water than not to drink at all, and die.

Show your support, like, share, subscribe, and be sure to check out the corresponding YouTube Video: 6 Principles of Survival – Minimize Dehydration.    Thanks – Justin “Sage” Williams

 

 

6 Principles of Survival – Maintain Core Body Temperature – Part 2 Fire

“The psychological effects of being able to start a fire should not be underestimated; neither should the effects of not being able to start one.”

In any survival situation maintaining your core body temperature is critical.  It could be the difference between life and death. Beyond Shelter (See part 1 CBT Shelter Blog post) fire is crucial.  It has the ability to form a micro climate to protect you from the elements, treat water, cook food, sterilize for first aid, and provide comfort and security.  It cannot be underestimated.

I could write several blog post on the fundamentals of fire alone, but I will stick to just a few key principles.

Four Stages of Fire: By most standards there are 4 stages of a fire. These stages are incipient, growth, fully developed, and decay.

  • Incipient/Ignition – This first stage begins with the Fire Triangle

The Fire Triangle: Too often we think of fire as an object, and fail to understand the reaction that takes place.  Fire is an event.  When the elements of Fuel, Oxygen, and Heat are combined they create combustion which results in FIRE!

  • Growth –  This is where the combustibles and oxygen are used as fuel for the fire. Usually consist of isolated flames.   There are numerous factors affecting the growth stage.       Factors that affect fire development
    1. Fuel type
    2. Availability of air supply
    3. Availability and proximity of additional fuel
    4. Ventilation and changes in ventilation
    5. Ambient conditions (e.g. wind, temperature, humidity, etc.)
  • Fully Developed – When all combustible materials have been ignited, a fire is considered fully developed.  This is the hottest phase of a fire and the point where it produces the most heat.
  • Decay – Usually the longest stage of a fire, the decay stage is characterized a significant decrease in one or more of the elements found in the triangle of fire, putting an end to the fire.

Now that you have a simple overview of the stages of fire, let us look at several different methods for starting a fire.

5 Primary Fire Methods/Ignitions

Friction – Ferro Rod / Bow Drill / Hand Drill / Fire Saw / Fire Plow

Solar – Magnifying Lens (position, angle, and sturdiness is key) (char-cloth, fungus, ball)

Percussion – Flint and Steel

Electrical – Battery & Steel Wool

Chemical – Potassium Permanganate & Glycerin

Be sure to lay down a proper fire platform (ground barrier), and a well prepped tinder bundle before starting a fire.  We have several videos on many of these fire methods.  Having an adequate amount kindling will also greatly impact the effectiveness of your fire.

Extinguish 

Always properly extinguish your fires.  Fire Control Theory – fire is controlled and extinguished by limiting or interrupting one or more of the essential elements in the fire triangle.  Before you leave make ash soup.  If you cant place your hands in the coals/ash without burning yourself then you have not properly extinguished your fire.

 

Be sure to check out the corresponding YouTube Video, and be sure to show your support – Like, Share, Subscribe!

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Survival Training for Kids

Survival Training for Kids Series

Clothing, Shelter, Water, & Fire

 

So let me start this blog off by telling you a little bit about my daughter Shyloh. She is the spunkiest, most independent, hard-headed, little redhead that you have ever met. But she is as sharp as a tack and she knows it. She is about to turn 4 and I feel like it is time to start her training into the world of wilderness self-reliance. By the time she is 10 I will have her smoking most of the survival instructors in the country. Guaranteed. This little girl loves animals and she loves the jungle. She calls the woods, The Jungle, compliments of Dora the explorer. She tells everyone that her daddy lives in the jungle and eats snakes, LOL!

Anyway, I am going to start making a video and blog journal of my training endeavors with her and hopefully this will make you want to get your children involved in the outdoors. The only reason we have the beautiful wild resources that we have today is because we have motivated people like yourself that are willing to instruct the kids to love the land as much as you do!

So where do we start in training a kid in how to survive? Well I think you have to start at the most very basic level. Our first line of defense against mother nature is our clothing and we have to have the right clothes for our kids in the woods.

Clothing

A good pair or rubber boots, some camo cargo pants, t-shirt, and a light jacket is a great start. But don’t forget some wet weather gear like a poncho. Wouldn’t spend much on them, you know how these kids grow like weeds. Just get something that will last awhile. Once you get these items lined out for your little one, then you have to teach them how to wear it and why we wear the clothes we do. Teach them to tuck their pants into their boots, and their shirt into their pants and that will really help keep the bugs off them. But to really make sure they don’t get ate up by bugs, you should treat their outdoors clothes with Sawyer brand Permethrine from Wal-Mart. You can pick the treatment up for about $10 a bottle. Read our preventing bug bites article for more info.

Once we teach them about how to wear their clothing then we got to show our little ones what else we can do with our clothing to keep us safe from the elements. Let’s throw out a hypothetical and say the child is lost and cold front is coming in and they only have that lightweight jacket. Well anything we can use to create dead air space can provide us with warmth. So all we do is find some kind of debris like dry leaves or any kind of debris that will keep us warm. You stuff your clothes up with the debris and I promise it will keep you warm even if it’s wet. All you have done is created dead air space in your clothing and increased it insulation.

Survival Kit

You also have to teach them that it is very important to not get wet if you in a survival situation. So they should always have a poncho in their little survival kit with them. Without a doubt you have to get them a little survival kit to practice with. I have a little survival backpack that I put together for my daughter for only a few bucks.

 

My 4 year old daughter’s survival kit:

-small camo backpack

-stainless steel canteen

-flint and steel rod

-cotton balls

-butter knife

-brightly colored poncho

-whistle

 

These few little items don’t cost much at all and will give small kids a since of pride in doing what their parent does and having their own gear. The makeup of the kit should really be determined by age and skill level in the woods. But every kid needs their own tools and they must be taught how to use them safely. Knifes are the most dangerous thing you can give them and they will require a lot of instruction on using it. I am starting Shyloh with a butter knife and will work my way up over the next few years to letting her have her own Mora knife.

Once you have their gear lined out and you have given them some training on how to use it, then it is time to move on to the priorities of survival. And your first priority in any survival situation is to get shelter. More people die of exposure to the elements than anything else. So if you teach your kids nothing but how to dress and how to get shelter then you will have significantly improved your kid’s chances of surviving in the woods alone. If they can stay warm and dry then that is 90% of the survival battle.

Shelter

Shelter is far more important than people might think! Exposure to the elements in the number one reason people die in the wilderness. Not snakes and scary looking bugs!  But it’s probably best to teach them to first look for natural shelters and where to look for them in your area. Bluffs, overhangs, caves, and natural shelters like this will serve them best for short term survival. But if they can’t find natural shelter then they have to know how to build a good survival shelter. The best shelter to show them is the common lean to, but don’t teach them to build a lean to for your size. Make it kids size only! Small shelters are warmer, dryer, and simpler to build. Watch the video below to see how we make a great kids shelter with very little tools.

Once your kids have mastered the skills of staying warm and dry then you have given them the ability to survive most situations until they can be rescued. I can’t say it enough that your personal clothing and shelter from the weather are the two biggest priorities when training our young ones. If they get those two simple concepts, then they can surely stay alive until someone finds them. But we don’t just stop at teaching them the most basic concepts; we want to prepare our kids to the maximum so they are prepared to live in this harsh world.

Water

The next most important step after training them in shelter, then they must learn to safely procure water in the woods. There is literally a million techniques for doing this but my favorite has to be the sip well. It is not 100% full proof by any means. But the two greatest dangers we need to worry about in North America are giardia and cryptosporidium. By digging a sip well we can almost completely eliminate our chances of getting those two bugs. The water will still have bacteria, but it very unlikely that it will be in high enough concentrations to bother our immune system.

The number one thing we need to remember about water procurement is that it is all about reducing your overall risk. When we drink water out of the tap we are getting e-coli and many other well known bacteria in our water. And they don’t hurt us because they are in small concentrations. So our goal is to reduce concentrations of bacteria in any way possible. Now don’t get me wrong, if I have the time and means to boil the water then I will definitely do so. So keep in mind that this is a technique to use when you can’t boil water for whatever reason. Because boiling is the only fool proof technique for purifying water in the woods. Please watch the video below to see how to do it.

 

Fire

Fire is such an important skill that it can sometimes be the biggest priority even though its third on the list. This is probably one of the most difficult skills to master in the woods and can really frustrate some people. And friction fire is really difficult. So I always like to start kids out on the flint and steel. They a low tech, inexpensive, relatively easy to find, and will always work. Once you understand a few things about tinder then you will understand how to make fire every time. Your fine tinder must be light and airy, thoroughly dry (if not dry it before hand, after processed), and you must fluff the tinder before ignition. When I say that you have to fluff it, you have to physically lift the tinder and create lots of air pockets in yours birds nest. Just doing this will certainly get you fire every time! Watch this video below to see how Shyloh and I got fire with our flint steel and cotton in wet conditions.

MAKE SURE TO STAY TUNED FOR MORE ARTICLES AND VIDEOS ON THIS SUBJECT! IT IS AN ONGOING SERIES DOCUMENTING MY DAUGHTER’S SURVIVAL TRAINING.

FYI: All of our wilderness survival courses are open to children if you want to have the SIGMA 3 team train your family! Contact us to see what courses would be best for your family!

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